All quotes are pulled from James C. Scott’s Two Cheers for Anarchy.
Infrapolotics - “Foot dragging, poaching, pilfering, dissimilation, sabotage, desertion, absenteeism, squatting, and flight… unruly defiance… outside of the visible spectrum .. of political activity.”
Anarchist Calisthenic- The practice of breaking small, irrelevant laws that have no moral consequence in preparation for breaking a more consequential law in the name of moral and social justice. This is a term the author came up with during his stay in Germany. This came about when he was confronted with a situation where crowds of people would wait as apposed to jaywalking at red lights no matter how dead the vehicular street traffic was. Their logic was setting a good example for the children.
Vernacular Order- “Only as precise as it needs to be.” The local system of recognizing areas and street names based on function or land marks.
Official Order- State recognition of street names as opposed to local names referencing landscape of use, organization of cities to functions in an isolated and geometric manner as opposed to more organic, mixed-use cities, agriculture based on isolation of plants as opposed to polycropping.
Landscape of Appropriation- “Nearing universal system of permanent patronymic naming” that the state deemed useful to “centralize knowledge and power, utterly neutral with respect to the purpose which they are put.”
Monoculture- Elimination of cultural diversity in a strategized system allowing for global economy with disregard to local government and economy.
Polycropping- Planting several species of crop together based on mutual gain. A more efficient and productive use of space as opposed to planting isolating large amounts of one crop. Prevents the spread of infectious disease and pests quickly consuming the crop due to the diversity of plant life.
Vernacular City- The mixed-use working order of a city. The city as known by the locals.
Tunnel Vision- Affording the winners of the “rat race” opportunities and benefits that 50% of those from standardized school systems fail to receive. Isolated urban planning without longterm thought on the actual working function of the area.
Cooperation without Hierarchy or State Rule-
High Modernist Optimism-
Mutualism- A relationship from which both, or multiple, participating parties benefit.
Social Taxidermy- “The effort to specify and freeze functions by planning” as observed by Janet Jacobs
Work to Rule Strike- “Workers have seized the inadequacy of rules to explain how things actually run and have exploited it to their advantage.”
Visual Order vs. Working Order- Visual order is the geometrically organized planning of cities or agriculture. This isolates functions, making things more orderly while also driving away the public and making these spaces less efficient and productive. Working order is the mixed use and organic use of space allowing cohesion between functions and a beneficial relationship either between two businesses or a mutual benefit plant relationship.
Play and Openness-
GHP- Gross Human Product. The amount a work process effects human capacities and skills as well as worker satisfaction. “What can be expected of a man who a spent the last twenty years of his life putting heads on pins,” Alexis de Tocquevile on Adam Smith’s division of labor. Bringing light to the flaw of the Gross Domestic Product form of measuring a company or business’s success.
Hicksian Income- Jane Hicks idea of welfare income. “Accrued only if land and labor not degraded.”
Externalities- Products and monetary gain or loss produced by cultivation and manufacturing practices and the effects they have on their environment and the individuals involved.
"An Institutional Personality"-
Jeffersonian Democracy- “Composed of independent, self-reliant, self respecting, land owning farmers, … debt free” with no reason for dependance. Public sphere.
"Unsafe is Safe"- The absence of micromanagement from a higher authority increasing awareness of actions of the individual causing them to be more conscious of their own safety and others. An example being the removal of stop lights reducing instead of increasing accidents on the road. Over signage and stop lights allows the driver to operate on autopilot and use this system to their highest advantage. The absence of these systems forces the driver to be more alert, responsible, and courteous while driving reducing likelihood of accidents caused by carelessness.
Petite Bourgeoise- A class of people, the largest in the world, the retain some autonomy and freedom through shop keeping or various other trades, “small holding peasants, artisans, peddlers, small independent professionals,” and small traders and maintain a small property. “..They maintain an autonomy over their workday. Self-respecting citizens that are hard to monitor, tax, and police due to their small economic size.
Germ Theory- Disease in terms of foreshadowing Nazi-antisemitism. “Petty bourgeois infection had spread from peasantry to a segment of the working class.”
Collectivization- State land reform. Resisted by peasants as a “betrayal of aspiration.”
Agribusiness- Large scale corporate farming business focused solely on mass production of crop. This overlooks health of soil and exploits the farmer and his/her land. This method of farming is also problematic due to the dependence on fertilizer, pesticide, and genetically modified seeds in place of healthier and less short term solutions that smaller farms and polycropping provide.
Autonomy of the Working Day- The workers ability to manage their own time throughout their work day with little or no supervision or monitoring from a higher authority. Farming before agribusiness and craftsmen before the industrial revolution and taylorism.
Fence Laws of the 1980’s- A state reclamation of the commons, forcing freed slaves and poor whites back into the labor workforce.
The Commons- Freed slaves and poor whites made independent poor livelihoods off of unclaimed common property before the fence laws of the 1980’s “avoid[ing] degrading dependance on wealthier neighbors/”
"Eyes on the Street"- First observed by Jane Jacobs in the 1960’s. Monitoring of the neighborhood by pedestrians, shop keeps, and residents preserving public order. This requires mixed-use neighborhoods ensuring steady street traffic, but comes at no cost to the public.
Positive Externalities- Practices improving land/labor conditions such as cultivation practices that built up soil nutrients and tilth and manufacturing practices that expand the knowledge and skill of the worker.
No Child Left Behind- The installation of standardized tests into schools in 2001 under little Bush. “Never wonder. By means of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division settle everything somehow and never wonder,” Charles Dickens Hard Times.
Teaching to the Test- Test preparation for standardized test. Eliminating cooperative learning, multicultural curriculum, fostering multiple intelligences, discovery oriented science, problem based learning in lue of a regimented test system to calculate the intelligence of students in a limite, one-dimensional way. ”One-product Factory” school system.
"Anti-Politics Machine"- The replacement of public debate with inaccurate and misleading quantification standards. The standardization of tests in school. SAT, ACT. The quantification of citations of scholarly papers to accrue the credibility of a source, without concern for the context of the citation.
"A Measure Colonizes Behavior"-
"The Audit was Successful but the Patient Died"-
Cost-Benefit Analysis- French Ecole des Ponts et Chausues. Series of valuation techniques designed to calculate monetized costs and returns. Adopted by organizations due to the easy access of data.
Particularity of the Human Gesture-
"The Banality of Goodness"- Francois Rochat’s contrast to "the banality of evil" of Hannah A. Activity drew out of logic of the act. Acting ethical due to a first hand experience, ex. the sheltering of Jews when brought to the doors of people who had previously rejected the idea of taking the risk to help them. No change in risk, but the victims were no longer an abstract idea, therefore the people acted in a way that was true to their moral standards.
Historical Causation- Create narrative for an act that cannot be explained in any other way, codification, false logic of information, such as in a public struggle with high stakes. Taking historical events and accounts and stitching them together in order to make sense or explain what happened, how, and why.